Aquaculture development in the Baltic Sea began during the 1970s in an area known as the Archipelago Sea off the southwest coast of Finland. Without public financing and assistance from regional development agencies, the rainbow trout farming industry would have become a marginal activity–as it is in other coastal districts of Finland. Both proponents of fish farming and environmental regulation are able to use culturally loaded terms and arguments in the debate surrounding the impact of aquacultural development. Without any support from the scientific community and despite hard natural conditions—including ice in the winter—Finnish producers from small islands in the Archipelago Sea have become leaders in the Baltic fish farming industry. The national goal of achieving a ”living archipelago” makes it the responsibility of all public authorities to act in a way that enables local people to stay in the region and develop their traditional way of living.