The aim of this study is to shed empirical light on the debate concerning second-home tourism and displacement of permanent residents. This is done by studying the most exclusive second-home area in Sweden, the Stockholm archipelago, and especially the island of Sandö, one of the most affected islands. Data were collected using a questionnaire examining all out-migrants from the island during the period 1991–2006. The questions concern out-migrants’ reasons for leaving the island and the extent to which second-home development had an impact on their migration decision. The core question is whether second-home tourism poses a displacement effect on the permanent population, through price inflation and limiting the supply of dwellings.